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Armeno-Indica: Four Centuries of Familiarity and Friendship
March 17 – March 18
This event is organized by the UCLA Richard Hovannisian Endowed Chair in Modern Armenian History.
Friday, March 17, 2023, | 10:00 AM – 6:30 PM (Pacific Time)
Saturday, March 18, 2023, | 11:30 AM – 6:00 PM (Pacific Time)
Postponed due to the pandemic, this international conference celebrates the bicentenary of the founding of Kolkata’s famed Armenian College (est. 1821), one of three centers of Armenian higher learning in the diaspora during the nineteenth century and the only one that has survived and is thriving today. Bringing together economic, literary, legal, and cultural historians from India, Armenia, France, the United Kingdom, Germany, and the United States, the conference highlights how, beginning in the early modern period and continuing to the present, Armenians have traveled to India to make its distant shores and cultures their own. India looms large in the Armenian social imaginary. It was not only the place where the first Armenian proto-constitution for an “imagined” nation-republic was published (Madras 1788/9), it was also the cradle of the first Armenian newspaper (Madras, 1794-1796), the first modern Armenian play (Calcutta 1823), and arguably also where the first Eastern Armenian novel appeared (Calcutta, 1846), as well as where the first Armenian “feminist” tract (Calcutta, 1847) was published.
Gathering an international group of scholars, Armeno-Indica explores the Indo-Armenian saga in South Asia from the seventeenth to the twenty-first centuries. The themes to be explored include the connected economic, literary, legal, and political histories of Armenians and Indians in South Asia and beyond across the waters of the Indian Ocean. The keynote for the conference will be delivered by Professor Sanjay Subrahmanyam.
Panel 2: Language and Literary Revival (1:30 PM-3:00 PM)
Ahona Panda (Claremont McKenna): “Ajab Shahar Calcutta: The Outsider in the Bengal Renaissance.”
Talar Chahinian (University of California, Irvine): “Mobilizing Subjectivity in the Practice of the Nation: Tagheadeants‘s’ Case for Women’s Education.”
Peter Cowe (Near Eastern Languages and Cultures, UCLA): “Intertextuality and Innovation: Mesrop Taghiadeants‘ and his Experimentation with the Novel Genre in Comparative Perspective.”
Discussant: Houri Berberian (University of California, Irvine)
Coffee Break: (3:00 PM – 3:15 PM)
Panel 3: Armenian Historiography and Print Culture in Madras (3:15-5:00PM)
Martin Adamian (UCLA, graduate student): “Mesrovb J. Seth, Father of Indo-Armenian Historiography.”
Anna Sirinian (Dipartimento di Storia Culture Civiltà, Università di Bologna): “Azdarar (1794-1796): The First Armenian Periodical in the World.”
Hasmik Kirakosyan (Senior Researcher, Mashtots Repository of Manuscripts, Yerevan): “Harutiwn Shmavonean an Armenian Printer-publisher in Madras and a Farman for Printing in Arabic script in Madras.”
Discussant: Nile Green (UCLA)
Panel 4: History in the Present (5:00 PM – 6:30 PM)
Armen Arslanian: (Warden of the Armenian Church of Dhaka, Bangladesh): “The Armenian Church of Dhaka (Bangladesh) and the task of Heritage preservation.”
Vache Tadevosyan: (Community leader, Kolkata, India): “The Mardasirakan Jemaran (Armenian College of Kolkata) and its Bicentenary.”
Satenik Chookaszian (Armenian National Gallery in Yerevan): “Sargis Katchadourian’s reproductions of India’s cultural gems from the collection of National Gallery of Armenia.”
Chair and Discussant: Armen Baibourtian
Saturday, March 18, 2023 (Fowler Museum, UCLA)
Check-in at Lenart Hall (11:30 AM – 12:00 PM)
Welcoming remarks: Amy Landau
Panel 1: Monuments, Patronage, and Indo-Persianate Identities (12:00 PM – 2:00 PM)
Sebouh David Aslanian (Department of History, UCLA): “Cemeteries as Heterotopias: Armenian Sepulchral Culture in Agra and Surat, or what the Dead can tell us About the Living.”
Talinn Grigor (Department of Art History, UC Davis): “‘Transimperial’ Strategies of Artistic Patronage: From New Julfan Merchants to Parsi Industrialists.”
Veronika Zablotsky (Freie Universität, Berlin): “Orientalism and the Making of the Armenian Diasporic Imaginary in Early Colonial India.”
Discussant: Peter Cowe (UCLA)
Panel 2: The Historical Imagination and the Circulation of Revolutionary Ideas in Late 18th Century South India (2:00 PM – 3:30PM)
Michael O’Sullivan (The European University Institute, Florence): “Portfolio Capitalism and History-Writing in Hagop Simonean Ayubeant’s Life of Haydar Ali Khan, c. 1782-1795.”
Ayal Amer (UC Irvine): “Fitna and Patriotism in Late 18th century Madras.”
Satenig Badwagan Toufanian (Inalco, Paris): “The Snare of Glory: A Call for Freedom from Madras.”
Discussant: Sebouh D. Aslanian
Intermission: Lemonade, Cookies, and Open Galleries in Courtyard (3:30 PM – 4:40 PM)
Keynote Address (4:40 PM – 5:40 PM)
Sanjay Subrahmanyam (Distinguished Professor & Irving and Jean Stone Endowed Chair in Social Sciences): “Armenians and Others in Mughal Surat: Rethinking Communities, Collaboration and Conflict.”
Reception on the Terrace (6:00m – 7:30 pm)
UCLA Richard Hovannisian Chair of Modern Armenian History
Fowler Museum at UCLA
Armenian Studies Center at the UCLA Promise Armenian Institute
USC Dornsife Institute of Armenian Studies
National Association for Armenian Studies and Research (NAASR)
In his new book Awe: The New Science of Everyday Wonder and How it Can Transform Your Life,Dacher Keltner, UC Berkeley professor of psychology, defines awe as “the emotion we experience when we encounter vast mysteries that we don’t understand.” In his recent book talk, he introduced a receptive crowd to this concept, and how it is distinct from bliss, ecstasy, or gratitude. It is an emotion of mystery, of goosebumps. Keltner has even served as an “awe consultant,” guiding Pixar films on how to incorporate awe in the films Inside Out, and Soul.
When Professor Keltner was joined in conversation with three colleagues and an audience of a hundred in the Morrison Library on February 27, the discussion touched on many aspects of this emotion. Yuria Celidwen, a senior fellow at the Othering & Belonging Institute, spoke about transcendent experiences as conceptualized in indigenous cultures and how the elders in her Chiapas, Mexico community teach about a sense of reverence for nature or “ecological belonging.” Wesley Lu, a fourth year undergraduate and a student mental health advocate, spoke about collective effervescence — when a life force creates a collective self whether in a classroom, during a religious ceremony or among sports fans.
And no conversation about awe, especially in Berkeley, is complete without a discussion of plant medicine; third year undergraduate Mridini Vijay, also a campus mental health advocate, asked Celidwen to discuss her research on the topic that is commonly, though incorrectly, referred to as psychedelics. In Ethical Indigenous Medicine to Guide Western Psychedelic Research and Practice (The Lancet Regional Health – Americas (February 2023)), which Keltner described as “one of the most important papers on psychedelics ever published,” Celidwen and colleagues discuss concerns by Indigenous Nations over the cultural appropriation and exclusionary practices of psychedelic use in the West and the false notion that plant medicine is somehow the “one key pill to human enlightenment.” In fact, there is evidence that a daily practice incorporating “understanding, kindness, gratitude and reverence” may be as good as or better than psychedelics. In the end, there is so much more to learn about awe, and how we may experience it in our daily lives. Keltner’s book is a wonderful starting point for that journey.
In many of the world, we enthusiastically celebrate International Women’s Day. We were not aware then of Valentine’s Day and scamming of flower prices then. While the questions surrounding diverse values, gender identities, and contemporary politics are complicated, it is important to note that for many in the world, the basic human rights that we take for granted in the United States are beyond reach. I have been asked today to post a courtesy conference that is not affiliated with our library in which I will participate as a member of the organizing committee in my private capacity. The conference is dedicated to women of contemporary Afghanistan.
Longtime UC Berkeley Maps and Earth Sciences Librarian Phil Hoehn passed away on February 6, 2023, from complications of colon cancer. He was 81 years old.
Raymond Philip Hoehn, Jr. was born in Cape Girardeau, Missouri on October 23, 1941, the son of Raymond Philip Hoehn and Florentine Jeanne Hoehn. Following World War II, the Hoehn family moved west to southern California and Phil grew up in Pomona. Inheriting a love of maps from his grandfather, he majored in geography at UCLA. In 1967, Phil earned an MLS from UC Berkeley and began his career as the Map Librarian at UC Berkeley’s Bancroft Library in 1969. He was then asked to assume responsibility for the map collection of the General Library, and managed both collections for several years. When the Map Library was merged with the Earth Sciences map collection, Phil was tapped to lead the new combined unit, eventually known as the Earth Sciences and Map Library, and did so until his retirement in 1996.
Phil counted among his favorite accomplishments at Berkeley the development and management of the California Maps Project, an ambitious effort funded by a grant from the U.S. Department of Education to catalog and re-classify some 21,000 maps held in the collections of UC Berkeley and UCLA. Randal Brandt, currently Head of Cataloging at the Bancroft Library, was the project cataloger. “Phil hired me into my first professional position,” he recalled. “He mentored me, encouraged me, and supported me in the early years of my career. He also taught me how to catalog maps, which has been a part of nearly every job I’ve held since then. I can honestly say that I owe my professional career to Phil.”
One of the innovative decisions that Phil made during the project was to include geographic location data in records that describe California Land Case Maps. These diseños, rough manuscript maps, were used as evidence in the court cases which determined the validity of Spanish and Mexican land grants once California was ceded to the United States. Without the online tools of today, determining correct longitude and latitude data for the ranchos represented on the land case maps was not a simple task in the early 1990s.
Although this work was time-consuming, Phil’s decision paid huge dividends several years later when the Bancroft Library undertook the digitization of the maps. When discussing the significance of this metadata, Bancroft Interim Deputy Director Mary Elings, who directed thedigitization project, noted the bridge that has been made between the handiwork of 19th century amateur cartographers and contemporary Geographic Information Systems in an important aspect of California history: “Adding the longitude and latitude to the Land Case Map records provided helpful information for researchers in geo-referencing the digitized historic maps, which in turn helps current researchers using GIS systems in their work.”
After he retired from Berkeley, Phil headed down the Peninsula and held the position of map bibliographer at Stanford University’s Branner Earth Sciences Library & Map Collections from 1996 to 2000. At Stanford he performed collection development and maintenance, provided reference assistance, and worked to promote university-wide awareness of the map collections and services. Subsequently, from 2000 until 2007 he served as consulting librarian at the David Rumsey Map Collection (now theDavid Rumsey Map Centerat Stanford), where he created thousands of detailed catalog records for digitized maps.
Never one to spend much time “retired,” Phil then launched a second career as a volunteer map cataloger, first at the California Genealogical Society and then at the California Historical Society. In 2020, a CHS blog post described Phil’s work:
In June 2015, Phil Hoehn … took on the daunting task of organizing the California Historical Society’s vast map collection … over 45 drawers of flat sheet maps dating back to at least 1800 (including maps in atlases and books where cartographers depicted California as an island) as well as early mining, railroad, and irrigation maps, bound volumes of Sanborn Fire Insurance maps, and boxes of large rolled maps spanning all the counties in California. During the four years Phil worked reviewing, researching, cataloging, and rehousing the maps he discovered many unique titles, some that appear in only a few other collections in the world. Many of the works, by such prominent surveyors and cartographers as William Eddy, Herman Ehrenberg, Jasper O’Farrell, and August Chevalier, document the birth and growth of the city of San Francisco … [Phil] leaves nearly 4,000 maps now accessible to researchers. From foldout ones in rare books to enormous rolled maps that practically took a village to bring up from the vaults, Phil has discovered, cataloged, preserved, and documented them all.
Frances Kaplan, until recently Director of Library & Collections at the California Historical Society, expanded on Phil’s impact, saying “It is due to his efforts that the entire map collection at CHS is now cataloged and searchable. Along the way he discovered some rare ones and his work inspired the [current] map exhibit.” The exhibit, “Mapping a Changing California: From the Seventeenth to the Twentieth Century,” is on view through March 11, 2023.
Phil joined the Western Association of Map Libraries (WAML) in 1969, which was just two years after its first meeting took place. Phil was an active member of WAML his entire career. He found that the benefits of WAML membership included getting good practical advice from friendly, experienced colleagues. Phil also emerged as a wheeler and dealer who obtained many great maps for the UC Berkeley Library by participating in WAML duplicate exchanges. He viewed membership as aform of therapyand described WAML meetings as good places to voice local problems and concerns among like-minded individuals.
Phil had a direct hand in the founding of theCalifornia Map Society. Together with Diane M. T. North, who was then a Ph.D candidate at UC Davis, he co-convened a meeting at the Bancroft Library in May 1978, which was the inaugural gathering of the California Map Society. North recalled her long relationship with Phil: “Phil’s knowledge of and deep enthusiasm for maps, all maps, seemed boundless. Anyone privileged to have the opportunity to be guided by him and work alongside him benefited from his professionalism, patience, generosity, and quiet sense of humor.”
Will Murdoch, a book cataloger at the California Historical Society, who worked with Phil from 2015 until 2019, shared his memories of Phil:
He was my mentor and work colleague in the CHS Library. I cataloged books and Phil processed the maps in that collection. We shared a lot of fun discoveries with each other and learned about the depth of the CHS archives. It was an education for me as Phil’s background was extensive and he was so kind to share his knowledge with me. I miss him and our work together there.
Phil Hoehn played an important role in building the rich and diverse map collections on the Berkeley campus. As a map librarian, map bibliographer, metadata specialist Phil was instrumental in providing expert resource discovery for cartographic resources at many institutions throughout the Bay Area. More important than his professional qualities, however, Phil excelled as a colleague, mentor, and friend. Everyone who knew him and worked with him was made better for the experience.
Check out these online resources available through UC Library Search. Click on the titles to view them in the catalog, or visit the Art History/ Classics Library to view new publications of women artists on display.
Francisco de Goya and the Art of Critique probes the relationship between the enormous, extraordinary, and sometimes baffling body of Goya’s work and the interconnected issues of modernity, Enlightenment, and critique. Taking exception to conventional views that rely mainly on Goya’s darkest images to establish his relevance for modernity, Cascardi argues that the entirety of Goya’s work is engaged in a thoroughgoing critique of the modern social and historical worlds, of which it nonetheless remains an integral part. The book reckons with the apparent gulf assumed to divide the Disasters of War and the so-called Black Paintings from Goya’s scenes of bourgeois life or from the well-mannered portraits of aristocrats, military men, and intellectuals. It shows how these apparent contradictions offer us a gateway into Goya’s critical practice vis-à-vis a European modernity typically associated with the Enlightenment values dominant in France, England, and Germany. In demonstrating Goya’s commitment to the project of critique, Cascardi provides an alternative to established readings of Goya’s work, which generally acknowledge the explicit social criticism evident in works such as the Caprichos but which have little to say about those works that do not openly take up social or political themes. In Francisco de Goya and the Art of Critique, Cascardi shows how Goya was consistently engaged in a critical response to—and not just a representation of—the many different factors that are often invoked to explain his work, including history, politics, popular culture, religion, and the history of art itself.
Anthony J. Cascardi is the Sidney and Margaret Ancker Distinguished Professor at the University of California, Berkeley. He is the author of numerous books, including The Consequences of Enlightenment; Cervantes, Literature, and the Discourse of Politics; The Subject of Modernity; and The Cambridge Introduction to Literature and Philosophy.
Mª de Lurdes Rosa, Margarida Leme, Fábio Duarte e Miguel Ayres de Campos
Instituto de Estudos Medievais
Universidade Nova de Lisboa
Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas
VINCULUM ERC project
É com gosto e entusiasmo que partilhamos a descoberta de uma crónica nobiliárquica quinhentista, há muito perdida, e de dois inventários de arquivo de família com ela relacionados, e igualmente apenas há poucos anos recuperados – sendo o seu estudo integrado um trabalho inédito em curso.
O manuscrito da crónica nobiliárquica quinhentista, conhecido como Descendência e linhagem dos Castelo-Branco (doravante Crónica), está datado de 1588 e contém um longo texto de 261 fólios, em escrita elegante e cuidada. Em cento e dezasseis capítulos narra a história e a genealogia de um grupo familiar da nobreza portuguesa, os Castelo-Branco, estando dedicada a um dos seus expoentes ilustres na época, Duarte Castelo-Branco, conde do Sabugal, meirinho-mor e vedor da Fazenda. Encontra-se nas mãos de um colecionador privado, Doutor Miguel Ayres de Campos, que a cedeu de forma generosa ao projeto VINCULUM para ser estudada e editada.
Este projeto, financiado pelo European Research Council, tem com o objetivo o estudo do funcionamento das instituições de morgados e capelas (vinculação), em Portugal e seus territórios atlânticos, em perspetiva comparada com outros reinos do sul da Europa[i]. A forma como os grupos sociais que recorriam ao estabelecimento de vínculos para reforço da sua riqueza identitária e simbólica é uma das áreas de estudo de projeto VINCULUM, na qual materiais como as narrativas genealógicas e familiares tem grande relevo. Por acréscimo, o grupo familiar dos Castelo-Branco, que se organiza em diversos núcleos fortes, ricos e influentes na Corte portuguesa desde inícios do século XV, permite um dos mais interessantes estudos de caso do projeto.
Uma característica comum aos vários núcleos, entre os quais o dos Conde do Sabugal, foi a atenção aos arquivos e às práticas de gestão de informação das casas e das propriedades; uma outra, o cultivo das belas-letras e de vários tipos de saberes técnico – científicos. A literacia jurídica e contabilística permitiu-lhe aceder por gerações a cargos cimeiros da corte, ligados ao direito e à gestão do reino e dos bens régios, desde a Casa do Cível à vedoria da fazenda, passando pelo meirinhato-mor. A influência política dos Castelo-Branco permitiu que assumissem posições de relevo também no interior dos conselhos e juntas que auxiliaram monarcas portugueses e espanhóis. Entre os vários ramos, avultam senhores que cultivavam saberes como a astronomia, matemática e genealogia. A título de exemplo, tenha-se em consideração que Martinho, primeiro conde de Vila Nova de Portimão, foi íntimo do humanista italiano, residente em Lisboa, Cataldo Sículo; que no espólio fúnebre de um dos seus netos, morto em Alcácer Quibir, se encontrava “um livro de Luis de Camões” e um outro de Ludovico Ariosto; e que Manuel de Castelo-Branco, segundo conde de Vila Nova, foi autor de um livro com árvores genealógicas da aristocracia portuguesa, impresso em 1625, e de uma relação manuscrita acerca da história da sua linhagem.
A Crónica de que agora se trata espelha bem a riqueza de informação circulante no grupo, quanto ao seu passado e ao seu presente. São inúmeros os documentos e os livros citados, pelo que se vê de uma primeira análise. O conhecimento dos arquivos da família era especialmente prezado, e o estudo da Crónica será enriquecido com o de dois outros manuscritos, descobertos no âmbito de um dos projetos antecessores do VINCULUM, o projeto INVENTARQ[ii].
Também em mãos privadas, e generosamente disponibilizado para estudo, em 2015, ao grupo ARQFAM[iii] e, agora, ao projeto VINCULUM, é o Livro da Fazenda do Senhor Conde Meirinho-Mor e rendimento dela e dos seus papeis e outras lembranças. Códice in 4º, de 293 páginas numeradas, encadernado em pele, datado também de 1588, fez parte do Arquivo da Casa de Óbidos onde terá entrado pelo casamento da condessa de Sabugal e Palma com o 2º conde de Óbidos, em 1669. No arquivo da Casa terá permanecido mesmo depois de ter sido entregue, já no século XX, ao marquês de Santa Iria herdeiro dos condes de Óbidos. Está agora nas mãos de um colecionador privado, Arquiteto Jorge Brito e Abreu. Apresenta com a Crónica muitas semelhanças materiais, desde logo o tipo de letra; o seu restauro total, a finalizar em 2023, permitirá a leitura de páginas muito danificadas, e uma analise cuidada.
Já o Tombo do Cartório da Casa de Vila Nova de Portimão, atualmente à guarda do Centro de Documentação do Museu Municipal de Portimão, após compra no mercado livreiro, é proveniente da dispersão do arquivo da Casa de Abrantes pelos proprietários, ao longo da segunda metade do século XX. Ao que tudo indica, foi mandado fazer pelo segundo Conde de Vila Nova de Portimão, com sua direta intervenção; a redação final datará dos primeiros anos do século XVII, mas a empreitada deve ter começado nas últimas décadas da centúria anterior – o que o coloca em provável contemporaneidade com os dois documentos Sabugal. Foi editado e estudado por um dos atuais membros da equipa do projeto, Fábio Duarte, na sua tese de mestrado[iv], no âmbito de programa ARFAM, a decorrer na Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas da U. Nova de Lisboa desde 2010 e da área de formação em Arquivística Histórica da mesma instituição.
Embora não se saiba, igualmente, quem foi o responsável pela elaboração do Tombo do Cartório, note-se que esta, como as outras iniciativas já referidas, foi acompanhada de perto pelos membros da família Castelo-Branco e levada a cabo num breve intervalo de tempo. Não deixa de ser curioso apontar que, concomitantemente, em 1609, Gaspar Coelho Aranha, prior da vila da Atalaia, terminava a mando do terceiro conde de Sortelha, D. Luís da Silveira, genro do segundo conde de Vila Nova, a composição da Tabuada do cartório da Casa de Sortelha[v]. Aqui, uma vez mais, a reorganização de um arquivo familiar surgia a par da veiculação de uma ideia de memória nobiliárquica e da defesa do património conservado e transmitido durante gerações. O cura arquivista faz uma sugestão que poderá parecer estranha, ou megalómana, mas que afinal reflete a extrema importância conferida aos documentos familiares: o Conde deveria estabelece em Góis, vila principal entre as suas propriedades, um arquivo que albergasse os seus preciosos originais. Este arquivo chamar-se-ia, nem mais nem menos, do que «Torre do Tombo de Goez», e o cura relembra que o segundo conde, avô do atual, mandara fazer uma coleção de grande “tombos” semelhantes aos dos reis, onde registaram os seus bens e direitos. Num contexto alargado, estas composições e reorganizações de arquivos – que, como veremos, irão servir a Crónica – testemunham claramente de uma prática de escrita de gestão e de história-memória-genealogia dos Castelo-Branco e famílias afins, na qual avultam alguns longuíssimos testamentos que são, na verdade, “tratados de domesticidade”, contendo instruções aos sucessores sobre gestão política, económica, religiosa e afetiva das Casas e dos homens e mulheres por elas abarcados.[vi]
Se para os dois inventários de Arquivo, as autorias – que se colocam, de resto, de modo diverso do que para um texto literário – estão parcialmente esclarecidas, quanto à Crónica tal não sucede ainda. No momento atual, colocamos mesmo a hipótese de 1588 ser a data não da redação, mas sim de uma cópia, feita para Duarte de Castelo-Branco, mesmo se o texto está dedicado àquele titular. O Prólogo pede vénia de erros de copista que não sabia ler latim, pelo que foi escrito após um exame da cópia, que teve aliás outros acrescentos e retificações expressamente referidos no Prólogo. Este terá sido por copiado após finalizado, incluindo a advertência quanto aos erros, pelo mesmo calígrafo do resto, e colocado no caderno inicial do livro.
Outros indícios apontam para escritas em diversos momentos, ou incorporações de outros textos. No capítulo 57 escreve-se “…foraõ aas mujtas moradas de casas da famosa rua Nova de Lisboa que ora são do meirinho moor dom Duarte de Castelbranco e lhe rendem mais de hum conto de reis”. A menção a Duarte Castelo-Branco é algo indireta, não se parecendo com outras que lhe são feitas como promotor da Crónica; sobretudo, não é referido como chamam “Conde”, título que já detinha em 1588.
Indubitável e impressionante é a quantidade de obras e documentos citados, bem como a qualidade da informação deles tirada, com frequência citações diretas. Transmite a clara noção que alguém estava a trabalhar num arquivo. Dizendo muitos dos capítulos ricos em citações documentais respeito a outros ramos que não os Sabugais, é forte a hipótese de uma empresa conjunta, ou pelo menos abertura dos vários arquivos. D. Manuel de Castelo-Branco, conde de Vila Nova de Portimão, acima referido, poderá ter sido nela central, pela sua mestria e fama como genealogista.
Já a entrega do trabalho em si ao um certo Luís Ferreira de Azevedo, que circula desde o século XIX, a partir de uma nota manuscrita de autor não identificado, no manuscrito, parece-nos pelo menos questionável. É conhecido pela entrada que lhe dedica Barbosa Machado na Biblioteca Lusitana (III: 94), a quem se deve de resto quase todas as informações que dele existem. Terá sido cronista-mor por um pequeno intervalo de tempo no início do séc. XVII e guarda-mor da Torre do Tombo. Na verdade, lendo o elenco de obras dado por Barbosa Machado, nada parece garantir que a Crónica dos Castelo-Branco se identifique com o trabalho aí citado. O que efetivamente se lhe atribui são genealogias de uma série de famílias, entre os quais os Castelo-Branco, “de quem dizia ser descendente”, o que parece indicar um trabalho produzido num espírito inteiramente diferente do da Crónica[vii].
Estão por fazer os estudos dos percursos destes valiosos documentos. Terão feito parte da enorme quantidade de documentação de constituição e de gestão produzida pelos vários grupos familiares acima referidos, e outros semelhantes, ligados entre si por matrimónios fortemente endogâmicos que se concentraram ao longo dos séculos 17 e 18 em duas grandes Casas – Abrantes e Santa Iria. Os arquivos destas foram dispersos durante as duas centúrias seguintes, e estão hoje na sua maioria conservados em arquivos públicos e privados – embora exista ainda muito por descobrir, como prova os achados de que agora falamos.
Quanto à Crónica, dados até agora recolhidos permitem saber que fez parte da coleção do arquiteto bibliófilo Jose Maria Nepomuceno e vendida no leilão da mesma, em 1897, a Francisco Arthur da Silva, editor e livreiro[viii]. O catálogo não fornece, lamentavelmente, qualquer indicação sobre a proveniência e não se sabe, pois, como Nepomuceno a adquiriu. Terá feito parte do Arquivo e da Biblioteca da Casa de Óbidos, Palma e Sabugal, cujas histórias de constituição e dispersão estão também por fazer[ix]. O arquivo estaria ainda numa fase de vitalidade em 1836, quando é feito um extenso inventários dos seus milhares de documentos; encontra-se nele o Livro da Fazenda do Senhor Conde Meirinho-Mor (p. 416) mas não a Crónica, o que poderá simplesmente explicar-se pelo facto deste tipo de documentos serem antes conservados nas bibliotecas das Casas. A investigação preliminar conduzida nos inventários de livros existentes no Arquivo da Casa de Sta. Iria não produziu resultados.
Um escasso ano depois do leilão de Nepomuceno, em 1898, Francisco Arthur da Silva irá colocá-lo de novo em leilão, com o valor, a crer na indicação lateral, de 6.500 reis; não terá sido arrematado, pois o Apêndice mostra que ficou para o próprio[x]. A cópia do pequeno extrato existente na Biblioteca Pública de Évora e dado a conhecer por Rafael Moreira em 2022[xi], permite saber que o Arquiteto Nepomuceno a deixava consultar a amigos; desta consulta resultou a dita cópia parcial[xii]. Entre a venda por Francisco Arthur da Silva e o recente aparecimento em leilão, de 2016, há um hiato total.
Deve por fim mencionar-se uma sua versão abreviada num arquivo de família hoje depositado na Casa de Sarmento, em Guimarães. Intitulada Epílogo do livro da linhagem: dos de Castelobranco, é obra de um certo Bernardo Amaral Castelo-Branco. Provém do arquivo de uma casa da região vimaranense, a Casa do Costeado, e (ao contrário do que indica o catálogo online) foi feito já em 1610 – se bem que claramente por alguém que teve acesso à cópia da Crónica que agora nos ocupa.
A Crónica e o Livro da Fazenda estão a ser alvo de trabalhos de restauro conservação, e serão posteriormente digitalizados para disponibilização pública. Fazem parte de um conjunto mais vasto de documentação cujo restauro e digitalização foram custeadas pelo projeto VINCULUM. A Crónica será apresentada, em conjunto com os restantes manuscritos, num seminário a realizar na FCSH.NOVA, a 28 de Abril de 2023, organizado pelo projeto, e de cujos resultados informaremos o blog!
PhiloBiblon 2023 n. 1 (February) Texts of history, memory and management by a family group of the Portuguese nobility, 15th-16th century: discovery, recovery and study of unpublished manuscripts
Mª de Lurdes Rosa, Margarida Leme, Fábio Duarte e Miguel Ayres de Campos
Instituto de Estudos Medievais
Universidade Nova de Lisboa
Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas
VINCULUM ERC project
It is with pleasure and enthusiasm that we share the discovery of a long-lost 16th-century noble chronicle and the inventories of two related family archives, both of them only recently recovered – their integrated study is an innovative work in progress.
The manuscript of the 16th-century noble chronicle known as Descendência e linhagem dos Castelo-Branco (hereinafter Crónica), dated 1588, contains a long text of 261 folios, in elegant and careful script. In one hundred and sixteen chapters, it narrates the history and genealogy of a family group of Portuguese nobility, the Castelo-Brancos, and is dedicated to one of its illustrious members of the period, Duarte Castelo-Branco, Count of Sabugal, meirinho-mor and vedor da Fazenda of the kingdom of Portugal. It is owned by a private collector, Doutor Miguel Ayres de Campos, who has generously loaned it to the VINCULUM project to be studied and edited.
This project, funded by the European Research Council, aims to study the functioning of the institutions of primogeniture (morgados) and chantry (endowed) chapels (vinculação/entailment) in Portugal and its Atlantic territories, in comparison with the same institutions in other kingdoms of southern Europe.[i] The way in which social groups used the establishment of vínculos/entails to reinforce their identity and symbolic wealth is one of the study areas of the VINCULUM project, in which materials such as genealogical and family narratives have great relevance. In addition, the Castelo-Branco family group, which comprised several strong, wealthy and influential nuclei at the Portuguese Court from the beginning of the 15th century, will be one of the most interesting case studies of the project.
A common feature of the various nuclei, including that of the Count of Sabugal, was the attention given to archives and the information management practices of the various houses and estates; another was the cultivation of the fine arts and various kinds of technical and scientific knowledge. Legal and accounting literacy allowed different members of the group to gain access for generations to top positions at court, linked to law and the management of the kingdom and royal property, from the House of the Civil Court to the treasury and the meirinhato-mor. The Castelo-Branco’s political influence allowed them to assume important positions within the councils and boards that assisted and advised Portuguese and Spanish monarchs. Among the various branches were lords who cultivated fields such as astronomy, mathematics, and genealogy. A few examples: Martinho, first Count of Vila Nova de Portimão, was a close friend of the Italian humanist and Lisbon resident, Cataldo Sículo; in the estate of one of his grandsons, killed at the battle of Alcácer Quibir, there was “a book by Luis de Camões” and another by Ludovico Ariosto; Manuel de Castelo-Branco, second Count of Vila Nova, was the author of a book with family trees of the Portuguese aristocracy, printed in 1625, and a handwritten account of the history of his lineage.
The Crónica reflects the wealth of information circulating in the group about its past and present. It cites numerous documents and books, as a preliminary analysis has shown. Knowledge of the family archives was especially prized, and the study of the Crónica will be enriched by that of two other manuscripts, discovered within the scope of one of VINCULUM’s predecessor projects, the INVENTARQ project[ii].
Also in private hands, and generously made available for study in 2015 to the ARQFAM group[iii] and now to the VINCULUM project, is the Livro da Fazenda do Senhor Conde Meirinho-Mor e rendimento dela e dos seus papeis e outras lembranças (Book of the Estates and property of the Lord Count Meirinho-Mor, his income, papers and other mementos). A codex in 4º, with 293 numbered pages, bound in leather, also dated 1588, it formed part of the House of Óbidos Archives, where it probably entered through the marriage of the Countess of Sabugal and Palma to the 2nd Count of Óbidos in 1669. It remained in the Óbidos archives even after they passed in the 20th century into the hands of the Marquis of Santa Iria, heir of the counts of Óbidos. It is now owned by a private collector, the architect Jorge Brito e Abreu. It has many material similarities with the Crónica, such as the script; the restoration of severely damaged pages, to be completed in 2023, will make possible a careful analysis.
The Tombo do Cartório do Casa de Vila Nova de Portimão, currently in the custody of the Centro de Documentação do Museu Municipal de Portimão, after purchase from the book trade, comes from the dispersal of the House of Abrantes archive by its owners during the second half of the 20th century. It was apparently commissioned by the second Count of Vila Nova de Portimão, with his direct intervention; the final redaction dates from the early 17th century, but the work must have begun in the last decades of the previous century – which makes it probably contemporary with the two Sabugal documents. It was edited and studied by one of the current members of the project team, Fábio Duarte, in his master’s thesis as part of the ARQFAM program,[iv] which has been underway at the Faculty of Social and Human Sciences at the Universidade Nova of Lisbon since 2010, and the training program in Historical Archival Studies at the same institution.
Although it is also not known who was responsible for preparing the Tombo do Cartório, it should be noted that this, like the other initiatives already mentioned, was closely monitored by members of the Castelo-Branco family and carried out in a short period of time. It is also interesting to note that, at the same time, in 1609, Gaspar Coelho Aranha, the prior of the village of Atalaia, was completing the Tabuada do cartório da Casa de Sortelha (Table of contents of the Cartulary of the House of Sortelha), ordered by the third Count of Sortelha, D. Luís da Silveira, son-in-law of the second Count of Vila Nova.[v] Here, once again, the reorganization of a family archive went hand in hand with the propagation of an idea of noble memory and the defense of a heritage preserved and passed down for generations. The archivist makes a suggestion that may seem strange, or megalomaniac, but which ultimately reflects the extreme importance attached to family documents: the Count should establish in Góis, the main town among his estates, an archive that would house his precious originals. This archive would be called the “Torre do Tombo de Goez,” and the chaplain recalls that the second Count, grandfather of the current Count, had ordered a collection of large “tombos,” cartularies, similar to those of kings, in which they recorded their properties and rights. In a broader context, these compositions and reorganizations of archives – which, as we shall see, underpin the Crónica – are clear evidence of a practice of management by writing, and history-memory-genealogy of the Castelo-Branco and related families, which includes some very long wills that are, in fact, “treaties of domesticity,” containing instructions for successors on the political, economic, religious and affective management of the Houses and the men and women they encompassed.[vi]
If for the two archival inventories, the authorship – which is different from that of a literary text – is partially understood, this is not yet so for the Crónica. At the present time, we even hypothesize that 1588 is the date not of composition but of a copy made for Duarte de Castelo-Branco, despite the fact that the text is dedicated to him. The Prologue asks for forgiveness for the errors of a copyist who could not read Latin – which points to the fact that it it was written after the rest of the text, which has other additions and rectifications expressly mentioned in the Prologue. This initial part was thus probably copied after the Crónica was finished, with the warning about the errors, by the same scribe as the rest, and placed in the book’s initial gathering.
Other indications point to writings at various times or the incorporation of other texts. In chapter 57 one finds “…foraõ aas mujtas moradas de casas da famosa rua Nova de Lisboa que ora são do meirinho moor dom Duarte de Castelbranco e lhe rendem mais de um conto de reis.” […there were many dwellings in the famous Rua Nova of Lisbon that now belong to the merinho mor lord Duarte de Castelobranco and bring him in as rent more than 100,000 reis]. The reference to Duarte Castelo-Branco is somewhat indirect, not like others that mention him as promoter of the Crónica; above all, he is not mentioned as “Count,” title he already held in 1588.
Undoubtedly impressive is the quantity of works and documents cited as well as the quality of the information taken from them, often direct quotations. It conveys the clear notion that someone was working in an archive. As many of the chapters rich in document citations concern branches other than the Sabugais, the hypothesis of a joint venture, or at least consultation of various archives, is strong. D. Manuel de Castelo-Branco, Count of Vila Nova de Portimão, mentioned above, may have been central to it, given his mastery and fame as a genealogist.
In contrast, the attribution of the text to a one Luís Ferreira de Azevedo, which originated in note in an unidentified hand on the manuscript and has been circulating since the 19th century, seems to us at least questionable. Ferreira de Azevedo is known by the entry dedicated to him by Barbosa Machado in the Biblioteca Lusitana (III: 94), to which we owe almost all the information known about him. He might have been chronicler-major for a short time in the early 17th century and head keeper of the Torre do Tombo. In fact, reading the list of works given by Barbosa Machado, nothing seems to identify the Crónica with the titles cited. What is effectively attributed to him are genealogies of a series of families, among them the Castelo-Branco family, “from whom he claimed to be descended,” which seems to indicate a work produced in an entirely different spirit from that of the Crónica.[vii]
Studies of the provenance of these these valuable documents have yet to be undertaken. They would have formed part of the enormous quantity of documentation produced by the various family groups mentioned above and others like them, linked together by strongly endogamous marriages, which came to be concentrated in the 17th and 18th centuries in two great Houses – Abrantes and Óbidos. Their archives were dispersed over the following two centuries and are today mostly preserved in public and private archives – although there is still much to be uncovered, as proven by the discoveries we are discussing now.
As for the Crónica, data gathered so far allows us to know that it came to be part of the collection of the bibliophile architect Jose Maria Nepomuceno and was sold at his auction in 1897 to Francisco Arthur da Silva, publisher and bookseller.[viii] The sale catalogue unfortunately gives no indication of provenance and it is not known, therefore, how Nepomuceno acquired it. It must have been part of the Archive and Library of the House of Óbidos, Palma and Sabugal, the histories of whose constitution and dispersal are yet to be written.[ix] The archive was still active in 1836 when an extensive inventory of its thousands of documents was made; in it can be found the Treasury Book of the Lord Count Meirinho-Mor (p. 416) but not the Crónica, which can be explained quite simply by the fact that this type of documents were kept in the House libraries, not the archives. Preliminary research conducted on the book inventories in the Casa de Santa Iria Archive, however, was fruitless.
A year after Nepomuceno’s auction, in 1898, Francisco Arthur da Silva put the Crónica up for auction again, with a reserve price, according to the handwritten note on the margin of the auction, of 6.500 reis; it seems that it did not sell, since the Appendix shows that it was left to the owner.[x] The copy of the small extract held in the Biblioteca Pública de Évora and published by Rafael Moreira in 2022, allows us to know that Nepomuceno used to let friends consult the Crónica[xi]; which was apparently the source of this partial copy.[xii] There is a total gap between the sale by Francisco Arthur da Silva and the Crónica’s recent appearance at auction in 2016.
Finally, we should mention the existence of an abridged version of the Crónica in a family archive now held at Casa de Sarmento. Entitled Epílogo do livro da linhagem: dos de Castelobranco (Epilogue of the book of the lineage: dos de Castelobranco), it is the work of a certain Bernardo Amaral Castelo-Branco. It comes from the archive of a house in the Guimarães region, the Casa do Costeado, and (contrary to what the online catalog indicates) was made as early as 1610 – clearly by someone who had access to the copy of the Crónica.[xiv]
The Crónica and the Livro da Fazenda are undergoing conservation work and will later be digitized for public availability. They are part of a larger set of documents whose restoration and and digitization were sponsored and funded by the VINCULUM project. The Crónica will be presented and studied, along with the remaining manuscripts, in a seminar to be held at the Faculty of Social and Human Sciences of the Universidade Nova de Lisboa, on April 28, 2023, organized by the project, and of whose results we shall inform the blog!
“Can I Mine That? Should I Mine That?”: A Clinic for Copyright, Ethics & More in TDM Research Wednesday, March 8th, 11:10am-12:30pm Online: Register to receive the Zoom link Tim Vollmer and Stacy Reardon
If you are working on a computational text analysis project and have wondered how to legally acquire, use, and publish text and data, this workshop is for you! We will teach you 5 legal literacies (copyright, contracts, privacy, ethics, and special use cases) that will empower you to make well-informed decisions about compiling, using, and sharing your corpus. By the end of this workshop, and with a useful checklist in hand, you will be able to confidently design lawful text analysis projects or be well-positioned to help others design such projects. Consider taking alongside Copyright and Fair Use for Digital Projects. Register here.