The University of Pittsburgh has released Project Tycho, a collection of surveillance reports about diseases in the United States going back 125 years.
"The researchers obtained all weekly notifiable disease surveillance tables published between 1888 and 2013 – approximately 6,500 tables – in various historical reports, including the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. These tables were available only in paper format or as PDF scans in online repositories that could not be read by computers and had to be hand-entered. With an estimated 200 million keystrokes, the data – including death counts, reporting locations, time periods and diseases – were digitized. A total of 56 diseases were reported for at least some period of time during the 125-year time span, with no single disease reported continuously."
Details on the methodology, levels of data, and more are available on the Project Tycho website.